Safety advice Safety advice - The 'why' as well as the 'what' For parents it’s easy to feel overwhelmed by the demands that come with family life and keeping children safe can feel very challenging. For practitioners the reality is that there are fewer staff and less resource than ever, so child safety can seem a challenge to effectively address. We get this. One of the reasons children have accidents is because they develop so fast that Mum and Dad can’t keep up! How many times have you heard the phrase ... “I didn’t know he could do that”? The "why" as well as the "what" With just a little bit of a deeper understanding – understanding the ‘why’ as well as the ‘what’ – parents are much better placed to help protect their children from a serious accidental injury. The links between child development and their susceptibility to accidents can be broadly categorised into two groups: physical and cognitive. In general, in the very early years, risk is related to both, and as they get to pre-school and older, it becomes more linked to cognitive development. To illustrate, here are four age-related scenarios: 1. A baby A baby lies on a changing mat for a nappy change. Her arms are outstretched, and her hand reaches the bag of nappy sacks. As a consequence of her grasp reflex (the same reflex which enables her to grip your finger) she gets hold of a nappy sack and, with her hand to mouth reflex, pulls it to her mouth, where the flimsy plastic clings. Babies don’t know they’re in danger of suffocation. Furthermore, even though a baby might struggle for breath, she will not be able to move the nappy sack away from her mouth. Keep nappy sacks out of reach of young babies. Obviously good advice and, if followed, then the risks are greatly reduced. However by knowing the ‘why’, we are more motivated to take action and better able to anticipate other suffocation risks. 2. A toddler Practising his newly-acquired climbing ability, a toddler climbs onto a chair. The chair is by a window with a roller blind and the blind cord is hanging near the chair. The child is unsteady, loses his footing and falls from the chair, tangling his head and neck in the looped blind cord. Toddlers love to climb, but they won’t understand that they are at risk of a fall when they climb onto furniture. If they wobble, they’re unlikely to have learnt how to steady themselves. Furthermore, their windpipe is narrower and softer than that of an adult, so they can suffocate much more quickly – in as little as 20 seconds. Keep blind cords tied up and out of young children’s reach. With a more detailed understanding, parents will be better able to see how these aspects of their child’s development links to other risks, such as falls down stairs or choking on food or small toys. 3. A pre-schooler A three-year-old watches as his mother takes some paracetamol and puts the bottle in the bathroom cabinet out of reach. Later on at his grandmother’s house, he comes across a bottle of strong painkillers on her bedside table. Curious as to what’s inside, he removes the child-resistant top and swallows a handful of the pills. Young children learn by observing and copying those around them. Wanting to be like mummy or daddy is a completely normal part of their development. If they do something that they’ve seen someone do, but which might put them at risk, they are not intentionally being naughty. While a young child might initially understand the instruction not to touch, at this age, they can’t be relied upon to understand the consequences or to remember the instruction. Armed with this knowledge, parents and carers are better able to anticipate a variety of risks such as: lighters and matches, saucepan handles, and hair straighteners. 4. An older child A nine-year-old needs to cross a road on her way to school. She stops, looks both ways, and, apart from a car in the distance, judges it safe to cross. However the car is travelling fast and is actually quite close – at that speed, the driver hasn’t got the stopping distance he needs when he sees the girl in the road. At this age, a child’s brain is still developing the ability to judge distances and the speed at which a vehicle are travelling. And children develop differently. Knowing this will help parents and carers to make decisions about what a child who’s becoming increasingly independent can and can’t do safely on their own. Doing what comes naturally Sometimes a quick safety tip – keep hot drinks out of reach – is sufficient. But by thinking about how a child is developing empowers us to anticipate risk across a whole range of scenarios. And importantly, it helps to understand that a child isn’t being naughty, they just doing what comes naturally! Find out more about ... Protecting your child from burns and scalds Six toddlers are admitted to hospital every day because they’ve been badly burned. Babies and young children have such delicate skin that they can be burned far more easily than adults. Keeping your child safe in the car Twelve children under 10 are killed or injured as passengers in cars every day. Car seats prevent deaths and serious injury. How to stop your child from choking Each day around 40 under-5s are rushed to hospital after choking on something, or swallowing something dangerous. Food is the most likely cause, but small objects and toys can also be risky for young children. Keeping your child safe on a bike Most children love to cycle, and it's a great way for them to keep fit and healthy. It takes a while to learn, but once they've got a bike many children will want to push the boundaries, cycling further and faster. With a few safety tips, you can help them learn to cycle responsibly. Keeping children safe from electric shocks The good news is that children are at very little risk from electric shocks. But electrical appliances can be dangerous in other ways. Old appliances and children playing with electric appliances can cause burns and fires. Keeping children safe from a serious fall Each day, around 45 toddlers are taken into hospital because they’ve had a serious fall. These usually happen at home or in the garden, and there’s lots you can do to reduce the risk of your child falling. Keeping your children safe from fire Most children who die in fires die because they breathe in smoke which poisons them, rather than being burnt by the actual fire. Get some tips on preventing fires in your home. Staying safe around fireworks Watching fireworks is great fun. But taking care is important especially as children are more likely to get hurt by fireworks than adults. There are simple things that can reduce the risk to your family. Keeping children safe from poisoning Suspected poisoning is one of the most common reasons for young children to be taken to A&E. Every day, 15 young children are admitted into hospital because it’s thought they’ve swallowed something poisonous. Equipment to keep your child safe Safety equipment can help to create a safer environment for your child. It doesn’t replace the need for supervision, especially with younger children, but it can make protecting your child easier. Choosing safe toys Most children's toys are actually very safe. Accidents involving toys usually happen when a young child plays with a toy that is meant for an older child, or when someone trips over toys that have been left out. The reminders below will give you an idea of how to help your children play safely. Keeping your child safe from strangulation Some accidents seem very unlikely – most people don’t think it is possible for their child to strangle themselves. But there are a growing number of cases of children catching themselves on blind cords or other loops, often when they're climbing. If your child gets tangled in one of these cords it could be fatal. Keeping your child safe from drowning Young children can be fascinated by water, and swimming is great for a child's health and fitness. Here are some tips to make sure that their time in the water is fun and safe. Keeping your child safe from suffocation Babies and young children don't have the control that adults have over their bodies. They can wriggle and squirm but it is harder for them to move out of a dangerous situation. E-cigarettes and the risks to young children There is growing evidence that the liquid nicotine refills from e-cigarettes pose a significant poisoning risk to young children. Hospitals are reporting growing numbers of children accidentally swallowing liquid nicotine from e-cigarette refills. Keeping children safe from button batteries Button batteries are the small, round batteries you find in toys and everyday appliances like calculators and remote controls. They can be extremely dangerous for children, and if swallowed, can kill within a matter of hours.